Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Cinco perguntas para Jon Appleton



Jon Howard Appleton nasceu em Los Angeles (California, USA) no dia 4 de janeiro de 1939. Ele é compositor, autor, professor de música e um dos pioneiros no campo da música eletro-acústica. No final dos anos 50 ele passou a lecionar depois de se formar no Reed College, em Portland (Oregon, USA). No início dos anos 60 ele mudou-se para San Francisco (também na California, USA) e, simultâneamente aos seus estudos com Andrew Imbrie na Universidade da California, ele passou a lecionar música na Verde Valley School em Sedona (Arizona), onde ele regia o coral e a orquestra e ensinava teoria musical, história da música e piano. Depois de se formar na Universidade do Oregon em Eugene, Oregon, ele contruiu um estúdio de música eletrônica básico e compôs seus primeiros trabalhos neste gênero. Na metade dos anos 60 ele foi convidado por Vladimir Ussachevsky para estudar música no lendário estúdio de música eletrônica da Universidade Columbia-Princeton e, logo após, ele passou a lecionar no Dartmouth College em New Hampshire (onde ele fundou o curso de graduação em música eletro-acústica em 1989 e lecionou até 2009). Na metade dos anos 70 Jon deixou o Dartmouth College por um período de um ano (entre 1976-1977), quando ele assumiu o cargo de diretor do Elektronmusikstudion, o centro nacional de música eletrônica na Suécia. Depois disto Jon retornou ao  Dartmouth College e também passou a lecionar em diversas instituições e Universidades pelo mundo todo (como a Keio University, em Tokyo, Japão) e colaborou com o compositor e engenheiro de som Andre Smirnov para montarem o Theremin Center no Conservatório de Música de Moscow, onde Jon leciona até hoje pelo menos uma vez por ano!

Em 1969, Appleton publicou suas primeiras gravações ("Appleton Syntonic Menageire" e também seu álbum em colaboração com o músico de jazz Don Cherry, "Human Music"). Depois disto ele gravou diversos outros discos, muitos deles executados no Synclavier (que era chamado de Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer nos primeiros anos de existência), um instrumento desenvolvido por ele em parceria com Sydney Alonso e Cameron Jones. Este instrumento se tornou bastante famoso, principalmente nos anos 80, quando ficou bastante conhecido apesar muito caro. Suas composições incluem trabalhos para orquestra, câmara, voz, coral, piano, Synclavier e outros instrumentos digitais e, naturalmente, música eletro-acústica!


Você pode encontrar mais informações no website do Jon Appleton: www.appletonjon.com

Eu encontrei o Jon Appleton em São Paulo, no mês de agosto passado. Ele foi convidado pelo seu ex-aluno Vanderlei Lucentini para vir ao Brasil para realização de algumas palestras e um "pocket concert em um evento chamado "Actamedia 10", no qual o Vanderlei estava fazendo a curadoria. Jon Appleton é uma pessoa muito gentil e agradável. E muito bem-humorado (o que foi uma das características que mais gostei em Jon: seu senso de humor!). Gostaria de agradecer muito ao Jon por esta entrevista e por ser esta pessoa tão gentil! E também quero agradecer ao Vanderlei Lucentini pela oportunidade que tive de conhecer o Jon Appleton pessoalmente!

Jon Appleton & Astronauta Pinguim - São Paulo (agosto de 2012)

Aqui estão minhas cinco perguntas para Jon Appleton:

ASTRONAUTA - Jon, quais são as memorias musicais que vocie tem da sua infância e quando você percebeu que gostaria de ser músico profissional? E quando você se interessou por música eletro-acústica?

APPLETON - Eu resolvi me tornar compositor quando eu tinha seis anos de idade. Aos nove anos de idade eu compus "O Concerto Marciano". Juvenil.

ASTRONAUTA - No início dos anos 90 você colaborou na fundação do Theremin Center for Electronic Music, no Conservatório de Música de Moscow. E desde então você continua a lecionar lá pelo menos uma vez por ano. Como é sua relação com o theremin, é um instrumento que vocie gosta de tocar ou utilizar para compôr? E quanto ao Leon Theremin, você o conheceu pessoalmente? Qual sua impressão sobre ele e sobre o instrumento que ele criou?

APPLETON - Eu conheci o Lev Theremin em Bourges, na França. (Veja a foto histórica ao lado, com Theremin, eu, Moog, Buchla, etc.) Eu compús três peças para theremin - todas as três para a Lydia Kavina. O intrumento é musicalmente dificil de tocar. Eu não entendo porque as pessoas são tão fascinadas por ele.


ASTRONAUTA - Você é uma das poucas pessoas no mundo que inventaram e/ou desenvolveram um instrumento musical (no caso o Synclavier, to primeiro sintetizador digital a ser comercializado). Como foi o processo de construção do primeiro protótipo e os ajustes necessários até que você, Sydney Alonso e Cameron Jones dissesem "ok, este é o Synclavier!"? Você ainda tem algum destes primeiros Synclaviers (e, se tem, ainda toca nele de vez em quando)?

APPLETON - Eu tenho o primeiro e o segundo Synclaviers mas eu não toco neles. Eu nem tenho certeza se eles estão funcionando. Sydney, Cameron e eu desenvolvemos o instrumento a partir de algo chamado The Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer. O conceito era meu e o design deles.

ASTRONAUTA - Eu sou louco por sintetizadores MOOG, como você pode notar. E você utilizou um sintetizador Moog como seu principal instrumento no álbum que você gravou em parceria com Don Cherry, "Human Music" (de 1970). Como você conheceu o Robert Moog e quis suas impressões sobre ele? E quanto a Don Cherry e suas impressões sobre o disco que vocês gravaram juntos?

APPLETON - Bob Moog era uma pessoa muito gentil e querida. E era um péssimo homem de negócios. Veja a foto. Eu conheci o Bob no centro de música eletrônica de Columbia-Princeton, em 1965. Don Cherry e eu nos conhecemos através da nossa gravadora, Flying Dutchman. Ele tinha uma enorme imaginação músical e estava sempre disposto a tentar qualquer coisa.


ASTRONAUTA - Sua peça "Chef d'Ouevre" é muito legal! É uma peça de música eletro-acústica eu sei mas, na minha cabeça, eu faço uma comparação dela com Andy Warhol e a pop-art que estava surgindo quase no mesmo período (não sei se estou sendo tolo por fazer esta comparação...) Você gostava do movimento de pop-art nos anos 60 e aquilo te influenciou de alguma maneira? Ou, melhor, alguma outra forma de arte influenciava sua música?

APPLETON - Talvez muitos artistas na época estivessem interessados em incorporar elementos da cultura popular no final dos anos 60. Eu não conheço muitos compositores que fizeram isto. "Chef d'Ouevre" chamou muito a atenção justamente por causa disto. Foi lançada, na verdade, em um disco de 45 rotações, com "Newark Airport Rock" no lado B. Minha peça favorita desta era é "Time Square Times Ten" (http://www.folkways.si.edu/TrackDetails.aspx?itermid=32519) Você pode ouvir Sintetizadores Moog nesta peça.

Jon.







Five questions to Jon Appleton



Jon Howard Appleton was born in Los Angeles, California on January 4th, 1939. He is a composer, author, music teacher and a pioneer in electro-acoustic music. In the late '50s he became a college professor after graduating at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. In the early '60s he moved to San Francisco, California and simultaneously to his studies with Andrew Imbrie at the University of California he began to teach music at the Verde Valley School in Sedona, Arizona where he conducted the choir and orchestra, taught music theory, history and piano lessons. After graduating at University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon, he assembled a primitive electronic music studio and composed his first works in this genre. In the mid-sixties he was invited by Vladimir Ussachevsky to study at the legendary Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Studios and soon after that he began to teach at the Dartmouth College in New Hampshire (where he formed the graduate program in electro-acoustic music in 1989 and taught until 2009). In the mid seventies Jon left the Dartmouth College in 1976-1977 when he assumed the position of director of Elektronmusikstudion, Sweden's national center for electronic music. After that Jon returned to Dartmouth College and taught in several institutions and Universities all around the world (like Keio University in Tokyo) and helped the composer/engineer Andre Smirnov to establish the Theremin Center at the Moscow Conservatory of Music, where Jon also teaches at least once a year!

In 1969 Appleton published his first recordings ("Appleton Syntonic Menageire" and also his collaboration with jazz musician Don Cherry on the album "Human Music"). Since that he recorded several albums, many of them played on the Synclavier (called Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer in the first years), an instrument he developed with Sydney Alonso and Cameron Jones. This instrument was very famous - mainly in the eighties, when it became very well known even being a very expensive machine. His compositions includes works for Orchestra, Chamber, Vocal, Choral, Piano, Synclavier and other digital instruments and, of course, electro-acoustic music!


You can find more infos on Jon's website: www.appletonjon.com

I met Jon Appleton in São Paulo on last august. He was invited by his former student Vanderlei Lucentini to come to Brazil to some lectures and a pocket concert at an event called Actamedia 10 in which Vanderlei was the curator. Jon Appleton is a very kind and gentle man. And very funny (what was one of the main things I liked in Jon: his good sense of humor!). I wish to thank so much Jon for this interview and for being always very kind! And also want to thank Vanderlei Lucentini for the opportunity of meeting Jon personally!

Jon Appleton & Astronauta Pinguim - São Paulo (august, 2012)

Here's my five questions to Jon Appleton:

ASTRONAUTA - Jon, what are your musical memories from your childhood and when did you noticed that you'd like to be a professional musician? And how did you became interested in electro-acoustic/electronic music?

APPLETON - I wanted to become a composer from the time I was six years old. At nine years old I composed "The Martian Concerto". Juvenal.

ASTRONAUTA - In the early '90s you helped to organize the Theremin Center for Electronic Music at the Moscow Conservatory of Music. And since then you continue to teach there once a year. How is your relation with the theremin, is that an instrument you like to play or to compose for? And how about Leon Theremin, did you knew him? What's your impression about him and the instrument he created?

APPLETON - I met Lev Theremin in Bourges, France. (See this historic photo with Theremin, me, Moog, Buchla, etc.) I have composed three pieces for theremin - all of them for Lydia Kavina. The instrument is difficult to play musically. I don't understand why people are so fascinated with it.


ASTRONAUTA - You are one of the few persons in the world who invented/developed a musical instrument (the Synclavier, the first commercial digital synthesizer). How was the process to build the first prototype and make the necessary adjustments till you, Sydney Alonso and Cameron Jones said "ok, here's the synclavier!"? Do you still have one of these first Synclaviers (and still plays this instrument sometimes)?

APPLETON - I have the first and the second Synclavier but I don't play them. I am not sure they work. Sydney and Cameron and I developed the instrument first from something called The Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer. It was my conception and their design.

ASTRONAUTA - I'm a MOOG aficionado, as you may have noticed. You used a Moog Synthesizer as your main instrument in the album you recorded with Don Cherry, "Human Music" (1970). How did you meet Robert Moog and what are your impressions about him? And how about Don Cherry and your impressions about the album you recorded together?

APPLETON - Bob Moog was a very gentle and kind person. He was a terrible businessman. See photo. I met Bob at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in 1965. Don Cherry and I met through our record label Flying Dutchman. He had an enormous musical imagination and was willing to try anything.


ASTRONAUTA - Your piece "Chef d'Ouevre" is very nice! It's an electro-acoustic piece but, in my head, I make a comparison with Andy Warhol and pop-art that was emerging almost at the same period (don't know if I'm being fool to make this comparison...) Did you like the pop-art movement in the sixties and it kind of influenced you somehow? Or, better, what other art forms influenced your music?

APPLETON - Maybe many artists at the time were interested in incorporating elements of popular culture in the late 1960s. I don't know many composers who did this. "Chef d'Ouevre"attracted a lot of attention because of this. It was actually released on a 45 rpm record with "Newark Airport Rock" on the second side. My favorite piece from this era is "Time Square Times Ten" (http://www.folkways.si.edu/TrackDetails.aspx?itermid=32519). You can hear a Moog Synthesizer in the piece.

Jon.







Wednesday, September 12, 2012

Moog Prodigy poster (late '70s)




















Prodigy by MOOG

The Prodigy. Moog's new baby.

The Prodigy is the result of an extensive design and development programme aimed at producing a light, compact and simple to operate instrument which retains all of Moog's famous features at a price which brings it within even the most limited budget.

The Controls

Musical engineering is what Moog's design philosophy is all about. All the knobs and effects in the world are no good unless they are easily to hand and perform a truly musical function. From the beginning, the Prodigy was designed to incorporate all the essential features which go towards a complete performance instrument enabling fast sound changes with a minimum of fuss.
Moog's legendary attention to detail has even extended to developing our own "E-Z-See" knobs, designed to let players see the positions of each function from virtually any playing angle - a rather useful feature when your Prodigy is stacked on top of half a dozen other keyboards on a badly lit stage.

The Features

All on Moog's famous features are in the Prodigy. The fat Moog sound is there courtesy of our patented filter, together with two ultra stable voltage controlled oscillators. Fast action switches make changing functions easy and positive and Moog's famous pitch bend and modulation wheels are there to give your music added feeling through their special effects.
Clad in its real maple cabinet, the Prodigy is packed with exciting features, yet it weighs only sixteen pounds and costs a lot less than you would expect.


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Le Prodigy est l'aboutissement d'un programme intensif de création et de développment visant à produire un instrument léger et compact, d'une utilisation facile, en conservant intégralement toutes les fameuses caractétistiques Moog, et cela à un prix à portée de toutes les bourses, même les plus modestes.

Les commandes

L'engineering musical, c'est vraiment la cause à laquelles s'est vouée la philosophie de conception de Moog. Tous les boutons et les effets du monde n'ont de valeur que s'ils sont commodes et très maniables et assurent une fonction vraiment musicale. Dès le départ, le Prodigy a été conçu pour intédrer toutes les caractéristiques essentielles d'un instrument de performance complet, permettant le passage rapide d'un son à autre avec le minimumde complications.
La minutie légendaire de Moog nous a amenés à mettre au point nos propres boutons dits "E-Z-See" conçus pous permettre aux exécutants de voir les positions de chaque fonction sous pratiquement n'importe quel angle d'utilisation - particularité fort utile lorsque votre Prodigy se trouve sur une demi-douzaine d'autres claviers sur une scène mal éclairée.

Les caractéristiques

Toutes les fameuse caractéristiques de Moog se restrouvent dans le Prodigy. Le fameux timbre Moog est dû à notre filtre breveté et l'on a aussi deux oscillateurs ultra-stables à régulation de tension. Grâce à leurs effets spéciaux, les sélecteurs à action rapide facilitent le passage d'une fonction à une autre et les fameuses commandes d'atténuation de hauteur du son et de modulation confèrent á votre musique un phrasé plus personnel et plus direct.
Protégé par son ébénisterie en bois d'érable autentique, le Prodigy est bourré de particularités intéressantes, ne pèse que 7,25 kg et coûte bien moins que vous ne pourriez l'imaginer.


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Am Ende eines umfangreichen Forschings- und Entwicklungs-programms steht Progidy, ein Instrument, das von Anfang an so gebaut wurde, daß es leicht, handlich und einfach zu spielen ist. Und alles, was Moog berühmt gemacht hat, gibt es zu einem Preis, der auch noch kleinstein Kasse paßt.

Die Regler

Alle Regler und Tricks dieser Welt nützen Ihnen nichts, wenn sie nicht griffgünstig liegen und wenn wenn sie keine echte musikalische Funktion haben. Deshalb hat Moog sich den Begriff des "Musical Engineering" zum Grundsatz gemacht. Das heißt, daß der Prodigy schon von Grund auf für den Einbau aller Elemente ausgelegt wurde, die man für ein Instrument mit allen Funktionen braucht und die schnelle Tonwechsel ohne viel Gefummel möglich machen.
Die legendäre Gewissenhaftigkeit von Moog geht sogar so weit, daß eigene Reglerknöpfe entwickelt wurden, "E-Z-See" gennant. Damit sieht der Musiker praktisch aus jedem Blickwinkel genau, in welcher Position sie gerade stehen - nützlich, wenn Ihr Prodigy auf einem Stapel anderer Instrumentl steht oder wenn die Bühne nur schlecht ausgeleuchter ist.

Die Features

Der Prodigy kann alles, was ein richtiger Moog können muß. Mit dem patentierter Filter und zwei ultrastabilen, spannunggeregelten Oszillatoren wird der satte Moog-Sound geschaffen und mit den besonders schnellen Schaltern werden die Funktionen schnell und sicher gewählt. Die Sondereffekte, die durch die berühmte Moog-Tonstufeneinstellung und die Modulation-sscheiben erst möglich werden, geben Ihrer Musik ein ganz anderes Feeling.
Alle seine phantastischen Features stecken in einem Gehäuse aus echtem Ahornholz, aber trotzdem wiegt der Prodigy unter acht kilo und kostelet viel weniger, als Sie denken.


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"E-Z-See" knob / Bouton "E-Z-See" / "E-Z-See" Spezialknopf

Fast action switch / Sélecteur à action rapide / Schnellschalter

Everything to hand / Tout à la portée de la main / Alles liegt griffgünsitg

Performance control wheels / Boutons de commande de performance / Performance - Scheiben


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TUNE
Master Tuning for setting pitch to other instruments
TUNE
Accord principal servant à donner le ton aux autres instruments
ABSTIMMUNG
Hauptabstimmung zur Anpassung an anderes Instrumente

MODULATION RATE CONTROL
Varies modulation speed
COMMANDE DU TAUX DE MODULATION
Elle modifie le taux de modulation
REGLUNG DER MODULATIONSGESCHWINDIGKEIT
Steurt die Modulationsgschwindigkeit

MODULATION ASSIGNMENT
Separate switching to oscillators and/or filter
AFFECTATION DE LA MODULATION
Commutation distincte aux oscillateurs et/ou au filtre
MODULATIONSZUTEILUNG
Separate Schaltung für Oszilatoren und/oder Filter

OCTAVE
Each oscillator has three switchables octaves (footages) ranging from 32' on oscillator 1, to 4' on oscillator 2.
OCTAVE
Chaque oscillateur présente trois octaves commutables s'echelonnant de 32' sur l'oscillateur 1, à 4' sur l'oscillateur 2
OKTAVE
Jeder Oszillator hat drei schaltbare Oktaven (Dreichörig), von 32 fuß am Oszillator 1, bis zu 4 fuß am Oszillator 2.

SYNC
Switchable oscillator synchronisation automatically locks pitch of both oscillators together with pitch wheel to achieve dramatic harmonic phasing effects.
SYNCHRO
La synchronisation de l'oscillateur, commutable, accorde automatiquement les deux oscillateurs avec un bouton de variation de timbre pour produire des effets impressionants de mise en phase d'harmoniques.
SYNCH
Synchronisierschalter für Oszillator schaltet automatisch die Tonhöhe der beiden Oszillatoren mit dem Tonhöhenregler zusammen - für dramatische Oberwelleneffekte.

MIXER
Master volume control is sited at centre of control panel, next to the filter cutoff frequency control, for maximum control of sound. Mixing facility also includes individual oscillator volume controls.
MIXEUR
La commande principale de volume est située au centre du panneau de commande près du stabilisateur de fréquence de coupure du filtre, pour le contrôle maximal du son. Les moyens de mixage comprennent aussi les commandes individuelles de volume d'oscilateur.
MISCHER
Haupttonstärkenreglung liegt in der Mitte der Tafel neben der Filtergrenzfrequenzeinstellung, um die beste Klangreglung zu ermöglichen. Die Mischeinrichtung enthält auch separate Lautstärkenregler für die Oszillatoren.

THE MOOG FILTER
Moog's fat filter. 24dB/octave, including self oscillation feature to provide and extra sound source.
LE FILTRE MOOG
Filtre de timbre Moog. 24dB/octave, avec auto-oscillation pour fournir une source musicale supplémentaire.
DIE MOOG FILTER
Moog's satter Filter. 24dB/Oktave, mit Einrichtung für selbsterregte Schwingungen als zusätzliche Klangquelle.

FILTER AND LOUDNESS CONTOUR CONTROLS
Two envelope generators: one for VCF, one for VCA with Attack, Decay/Release, Sustain.
COMMANDES DE COUBRE D'INTENSITE SONORE ET FILTER
Deux générateurs d'enveloppe: l'un pour le VCF et l'autre pour le VCA avec Attaque, Atténuation/Coupure, "Soutenu".
FILTER-UND LAUTSTARKEN KONTURREGLER
Zwei Hüllkurvengeneratoren: einer für VCF, der andere für VCA mit Anstieg, Abklingen/lösen, Hatten.

RELEASE SWITCH
Assigns release control to keyboard
COMMANDE DE COUPURE
Elle attribue la fonction de coupure au clavier
AUSLOSESCHALTER
Schaltet Auslösereglung zur Tastatur

FILTER KEYBOARD TRACKING
For keyboard control of filter brightness.
REGLAGE DE FILTRE AU CLAVIER
Pour commander l'intensité du filtre au moyen du clavier
FILTEREINSTELLUNG AUF TASTATUR
Für Reglung der Filterhelligkeit auf der Tastatur.

GLIDE
Smooth linear glide (Portamento)
GLISSADE
Passage linéaire insensible d'un son à un autre (Glissade)
GLIDE
Weicher Linear-Glide (Portamento)

PERFORMANCE CONTROLS
For added musical feeling. Pitch wheel for bending notes. With notched centre position. Modulation wheel. Adds modulation for special effects.
COMMANDES DE PERFORMANCE
Pous um phrasé musical plus personnel. Bouton de hauteur pour modifier le ton. Position centrale crantée. Bouton de modulation. Fournit la modulation pour produire des effets spéciaux.
PERFORMANCE-SCHEIBEN
Für zusätzliches Musikgefühl. Tonstufen-Reglerscheiben für das Beugen von Tönen, mit Kerbe in Mittelstellung. Modulationsregler. Zusätzliche Modulation für Sondereffekte.

MODULATION SHAPE
Triangular and square wave shapes available.
FORMES D'ONDE MODULEES
Possibilité de formes d'onde triangulaires et carrées.
MODULATIONSFORM
Sägerzahn- und Rechteckwellenformen stehen zur Verfügung.

INTERVAL
Tuning control for oscillator 2. For detuning effects, adding intervals as marked on scale.
INTERVALLE
Commande d'accord pour l'oscillateur 2. Pous des effets de "désaccord", en ajoutant les intervalles indiqués seu l'échelle.
PAUSE
Regler für Oszillator 2. Für Resonanz-Effekte unter Zugabe der auf der Skala markierten Pausen.

WAVEFORMS
1. Sawtooth
2. Triangle
3. Square
4. Retangle
FORMES D'ONDE
1. En dents de scie
2. Triangulaires
3. Carrées
4. Rectanulaires
WELLENFORMEN
1. Sägerzahn
2. Dreieck
3. Viereck
4. Rechteck

INVIVIDUAL OSCILLATOR VOLUME CONTROLS
COMMANDES INDIVIDUELLES DE VOLUME D'OSCILLATEUR
SEPARATE LAUTSTÄRKENREGLER FÜR DIE OSZILLATOREN



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SPECIFICATIONS

POWER REQUIREMENTS:
Operating voltage range: 200 to 270 volts 50Hz
Power consumption: less than 10 watts

CONTROLLERS:
Keyboard: 32 note F to C
Glide: Linear, continuously variable from less than 2 msec to 3 sec. (10% to 90%, bottom to top of keyboard).
Tune control range: +- 3 semitones
Pitch wheel range: Greater than +- perfect fifth
Keyboard Sample & Hold drift: Less than 1mV/10 sec.
Modulation oscillator rate: From .26Hz to 31Hz.
Modulation oscillator waveshapes: Triangle and square
Amount of Modulation (Square wave):
Oscillator: from zero to 1 octave
Filter: from zero to 4.5 octaves

OSCILLATOR 1:
Reference frequency for low F (octave=32'): 44.4 +- 0.1Hz
Scale factor accuracy: 0.1% from 44Hz to 1.5KHz
Range drift due to temperature: 32ºF to 100ºF less than .02%/ºC
Waveforms: Sawtooth, triangle, rectangular
Pulse duty cycle: 10%
Octave switch footages: 23', 16', 8'
Octave switch accuracy" 0.3%
Oscillators will not lock when not in sync.

OSCILLATOR 2:
Reference frequency for low F (octave=16'): 88.8+-0.2Hz
Scale factor accuracy: 0.1% from 88Hz to 3KHz
Range drift due to temperature: 32ºF to 100ºF less than .02%/ºC
Scale factor drift due to temperature: 32ºF to 100ºF less than .02%/ºC
Waveforms: Sawtooth, triangle, square
Pulse duty cycle: 50%
Octave switch footages: 16', 8', 4'
Octave switch accuracy: 0.3%
Interval control range: Greater than +- perfect fifth

OSCILLATOR SYNCHRONIZATION:
In the sync mode, Oscillator 2's sawtooth wave can be reset by itself orby the reset pulse from Oscillator 1. This locks the fundamental frequency of Oscillator 2 to Oscillator 1 generating a complex waveform. When in the Sync mode the pitch wheel is rerouted only to Oscillator 2.

CONTOUR GENERATORS:
Number: Two (one for controlling the filter through an attenuator, the other for controlling the voltage controlled amplifier)
Range of Attack times: From 1 msec to 10 sec.
Range of Decay/Release times: From 1 msec to 10 sec minimum
Range of Sustain level: From 0 to 100% of contour peak.

VOLTAGE CONTROLLED LOW PASS FILTER:
Type: 24dB/octave cutoff slope
Filter-Keyboard tracking: three position
Slide switch allows routing of control voltage to filter
0     filter does not track keyboard
1/2  2 octaves of keyboard equals to one octave on filter
1     filter tracks keyboard within 1%
Cutoff frequency (with control set to zero, in self oscillating mode) 666 +- 50Hz
Range of filter cutoff control: 8 octaves
Maximum sweep of cutoff frequency by filter contour generator: 8 octaves

VOLTAGE CONTROLLED AMPLIFIER:
Audio output level: 0dBm
Bleed through level: Better than -75dBm
Output offset: less than 100mV

BURN-IN (AGING):
Before final calibration, units are burned in for 72 hrs. at ambient of approximately 72ºF
208 VAC, 50Hz

DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT:
Overall size: 5 5/8" high, 14 15/16" deep, 23 1/4" wide.
Net weight: 16 lbs.




ALIMENTATIONS ELECTRIQUES:
Plage de tension de service 220 à 270 volts, 50Hz
Consommation de courant: Inférieure à 10 watts

ORGANES DE COMMANDE:
Clavier: 32 notes de fa à do
Glissande: Linéaire, variable à l'infini despuis, moins de 2 ms jusqu'à 3 s (10 à 90%, partie inférieure à partie supérieure du clavier).
Plage de commande d'accord: +- 3 demi-tons
Plage du bouton de variation de timbre: supérieure à +- quinte juste
Glissement de discrimination & maintien du clavier: Moins de 1 mV/10s.
Taux de modulation d'oscillateur: de 0,26Hz à 31Hz.
Enveloppes de modulation de l'oscillateur: triangulaires et carrées.
Valeur de modulation (onde carrée)
Oscillateur: de zéro à 1 octave
Filtre: de zéro à 4,5 octaves.

OSCILLATEUR 1:
Fréquence de réference pour fa bas (Octave=32'): 44,4+-0,1Hz
Précisiondu facteur de proportionnalité" 0,1% de 44Hz à 1,5kHz
Glissement de gamme dû à la température: De 0 à 38ºC, moins de 0,02% par degré C.
Formes d'onde: en dents de scie, triangulaires, rectangulaires
Coefficient d'utilisation d'impulsions: 10%
Longueurs des électeur d'octave: 32', 16', 8'
Précision de sélecteur d'octave: 0,3%
Les oscillateurs ne sont accordés que s'ils sont synchronisés.


OSCILLATEUR 2:
Fréquence de réference pour fa bas (Octave 16'): 88,8 +- 0,2Hz
Précision de facteur de proportionnalité: 0,1% de 88Hz à 3kHz, moins de 0,02% par degré C
Glissement de gamme dû à la température: De 0 à 38ºC, moins de 0,02% par degré C
Glissement du facteur de proportinnalité dû à la température: De 0 à 38ºC, moins de 0,02% par degré C
Formes d'onde: dents de scie, triangulaire, carrée
Corfficient d'utilisation d'impulsions: 50%
Longeurs de sélecteur d'octave: 16', 8', 4'
Précision de sélecteur d'octave: 0,3%
Plage de commande d'intervalle: Supérieure à +- quinte juste.


SYNCHRONISATION DES OSCILLATEURS:
Dans le mode synchro, l'onde en dents de scie del'oscillateur 2 peut être réenclenchée soit automatiquement soit par l'impulsion de réenclenchement de l'oscilateur 1, ce qui accorde la fréquence  fondamentale de l'oscillateur 2 sur celle de l'oscillateur 1, de manière à produire una forme d'onde complexe. Dans le mode synchro, de réglage du bouton de variation de timbre n'est retransmis qu'à l'oscillateur 2.

GENERATEUR D'ENVELOPPE:
Nombre: deux (une pour la commande du filtre, par l'intermédiaire d'un atténuateur, l'autre por la commande de l'amplificateur à reegulation de tension).
Plage des temps d'attaque: 1ms à 10s
Plage des temps d'atténuation/coupure: 1ms à 10s minimum.
Plage de niveau de "Soutenu": 0 à 100% de la crête d'enveloppe.


FILTRE PASSE-BAS A REGULATION DE TENSION:
Type: seuil de coupure de 24dB/octave
Réglage filter-clavier: trois positions
Le curseur permet d'amener la tension de commande au filtre
0     le filtre este indepéndent du clavier
1/2  2 octaves de clavier = une octave de filtre
1     le filtre suit le clavier dans les limites de 1%
Fréquence de coupure (avec la commande amenée sur zéro, dans le mode à auto-oscillation)
666+-50Hz.
Plage de la commande d'arrêt de filtre: 8 octaves
Balayage maximal de la fréquence de coupure par le générateur d'enveloppe de filtre: 8 octaves.


AMPLIFICATEUR A REGULATION DE TENSION:
Niveau de sortie audio: 0 dBm
Niveau de fuite: meilieur que -75 dBm.
Décalange de sortie: moins de 100 mV.

EPREUVE DE VIELLISSEMENT:
Avant l'étalonnage définitif, les équipements sont mis en service pendant 72 heures, à une température ambiante de l'ordre de 22ºC 208 V c.; 50Hz.

DIMENSIONS ET POIDS:
Dimensions globales: 14cm (haut.) x 38cm (prof.) x 59cm (larg.)
Poids net: 16 livres (7,25kg).





TECHNISCHE DATEN EINGANGSLEISTUNG:
Betriebßpannung Verbrauch: 200 bis 270V 50Hz weniger als 10W

BEDIENUNGSELEMENTE:
Tastatur: 32 Tasten F bis C
Gide: Linear, stufenlos regelbar von weniger als 2m/s bis 3 s (10% bis 90%, unten bis oben Tastatur).
Abstimmbereich: +- 3 Halbtöne
Tonstufenregelbereich: Größer als +- vollkommene quinte.
Tastatur Sample & Hold Drift: Weniger als 1mV/10s.
Modulationsgeschwindigkeit: Von 0,26 bis 31Hz
Modulationswellenformen des Oszillators: Sägezahn und Rechteck.
Modulationsstärke (Rechteckwelle)
Oszillator: von Null bis 1 Oktave
Filter von Null bis 4,5 Oktaven

OSZILLATOR 1:
Bezugfrequenz für unteres F (Oktave = 32'): 44,4 +- 0,1Hz
Genauigkeit des Maßstabfaktors: 0,1% von 44Hz bis 1,5kHz.
Teperaturdrift im Bereich 0 bis 40ºC: weniger als 0,02%
Wellenformen: Sägezahn, Dreieck, Rechteck.
Impulstastverhältnis: 10%
Oktaveshaltlängen: 32', 16', 8'
Oktavenschaltgenauigkeit: 0,3%
Oszillatoren verriegeln nur in 'Sync'

OSZILLATOR 2:
Bezugsfrequenz für unteres F (Oktave 16'): 88,8 +- 0,2Hz.
Genauigkeit des Maßstabfaktors: 0,1% von 88Hz bis 3kHz.
Teperaturdrift im Bereich 0 bis 40ºC: weniger als 0,2%
Temperaturdrift des Maßstabfaktors im Bereich 0 bis 40ºC: weniger als 0,2%
Wellenformen: Sägerzahn, Dreieck, Rechteck
Impulsastverhältnis: 50%
Oktavenschaltlängen: 16', 8', 4'
Oktavenschaltgenauigkeit: 0,3%
Pausenregelbereich: Größer als +- volkommene Quinte

SYNCHRONISIERUNG DER OSZILLATORE:
In Arbeitweise Sync. wir die Sägezahnwelle von Oszillator 2 automatisch oder durch einen Impuls von Oszillator 1 zurückgestellt. Dadurch wir die Grundwelle von Oszillator 2 mit Oszillator 1 verriegelt um eine komplexe Welenformen zu erreichen. In Betriebsart Sync. wirkt die Tonstufenreglung nur auf Oszillator 2.

KONTURGENERATOREN:
Anzahl: 2 (einer für Reglung des Filtres durch ein Dämpfungsglied, einer für Steuerung des spannungsregelten (Verstärkers).
Bereich der Anstiegszeiten: Von 1ms bis 10s.
Bereich der Abkling/Lösezeiten: Von 1ms bis 10s Min.
Bereich für Dauerton: Von 0 bis 100% von Konturspitze.

TIEFPASSFILTER MIT SPANNUNGSREGLER:
Typ: 24dB/Oktave Grenzgerfälle
Nachführung Filter/Tastatur: Drei Stellungen
Gleitregler erlaubt Anlegen der Steuerspannung an den Filter

0     Kein Nachführen von Filter zur Tastatur
1/2  2 Oktaven der Tastatur = 1 Oktave am Filter
1     Nochführen des Filter zur Tastatur innerhalb 1%
Grensfrequenz (Regler auf Null gestellt, in selbsterregender Betriebsart): 666+-50Hz
Bereich der Grenzfrequenzreglung 8 Oktaven
Größte Ablenkung der Grenzfrequenz durch Filterkonturgenerator: 8 Oktaven


VERSTÄRKER MIT SPANNUNGSREGLER:
Tonfrequenzleistung: 0dBm
Durchlaßbereich: besser als - 75dBm
Ausgangsverschiebung: weniger als 100mV

EINLAUFEN (ALTERRUNG):
Vor der endgültigen Eichung werden die Geräte 72 Stunden bei einer Umgebungstemperatur von 25ºC eingelaufen, Ausführungen bei 208V Wechselstrom 50Hz

ABMESSUGEN UND GEWICHT:
Gesamtabmessungen: 142,8mm hoch, 380mm tief, 590mm breit
Nettonewicht: 7,25kg.




MOOG® SYNTHESIZERS

NORLIN

Europe:
Waalhaven ZZ48
Rotterdam
Nederland.

International & Canada:
51 Nantucket Boulevard
Scaraborough
Ontario.

Printed in U.K. 061 510